martes, 29 de diciembre de 2009


1. World Health Organisation Department of Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance (1999). "Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications"
2. Rother, Kristina I. Focus on Research: Diabetes Treatment -Bridging the Divide. New England Journal of Medicine. 356(15):1499-1501, April 12, 2007.
3. Efficacy and safety of one intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in diabetic macular oedema. Xiaoyun Fang, Hirokazu Sakaguchi, Fumi Gomi, Yusuke Oshima, Miki Sawa, Motokazu Tsujikawa, Yasushi Ikuno, Motohiro Kamei, Shunji Kusaka and Yasuo Tano. Acta Ophthalmol. June 2008: 86: 800–805.
4. Repeted Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab for Clinically Significant Diabectic Macular Edema. Roh MI, Byeon SH, Kwon OW. Retina X(X):1–5, 2008 Aug 25.
5. Long-term effect of intravitreal bevacizumab (avastin) in patients with chronic diffuse diabetic macular edema. Kook D, Wolf A, Kreutzer T, Neubauer A, Strauss R, Ulbig M, Kampik A, Haritoglou C. Retina. 2008 Oct;28(8):1053-60
6. Baseer U Khan, MD, Mácular Edema, Diabetic, Last Updated: April 14, 2006
7. Centers for Disease Control.
8. Harris M, Flegal KM, Cowie CC, et al: Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in US adults. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Diabetes Care 1998;21:518–524.
9. Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss SE, Davis MD, DeMets DL. The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy IV: diabetic mácular edema. Ophthalmology 1984;91:1464−74.
10. Klein R, Klein BEK. Vision disorders in diabetes. In: Diabetes in America. 2nd ed. NIH Publication No. 95-1468, 1995.
11. Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss SE, Cruickshanks KJ. The Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy XV: the long-term incidence of mácular edema. Ophthalmology 1995;102:7−16.
12. Frank R: Etiologic mechanisms in diabetic retinopathy; in Ryan S (ed): Retina, ed 4. St Louis, Mosby, 1994, pp 1241–1270.
13. Lang GE: Diabetische Retinopathie – Stadieneinteilung und Láserbehandlung. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 2005;222:R1–R18
14. Bresnick GH. Diabetic mácular edema: a review. Ophthalmology 1986;93:989–97.
15. Brenick GH: Diabetic mácular edema, a review. Ophthalmology 1986;93:989–997
16. A P Ciardella, J Klancnik, W Schiff, G Barile, K Langton, S Chang. Intravítreal triamcinolone for the treatment of refractory diabetic mácular o edema with hard exudates: an optical coherence tomography study. Br J Ophthalmol 2004;88:1131–1136. doi: 10.1136/bjo.2004.041707
17. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Photocoagulation for diabetic mácular edema. ETDRS Study Report Number 1. Arch Ophthalmol 1985;103:1796–806.
18. Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Four risk factors for severe visual loss in diabetic retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 1979;97:654–5.
19. Avery RL, Pieramici DJ, Rabena MD, Castellarin AA, Nasir MA, Giust MJ, Intravítreal Bevacizumab (Avastin) for Neovascular Age-Related Mácular Degeneration, Ophthalmology, Volume 113, Issue 3 , March 2006.
20. Bresnick GH. Diabetic maculopathy: a critical review highlighting diffuse mácular edema. Ophthalmology 1983;90:1301–17.
21. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Treatment techniques and clinical guidelines for photocoagulation of diabetic mácular edema. ETDRS Report No. 2. Ophthalmology 1987;94:761−74.
22. Philip Rosenfeld, MD, PhD, Miami, An Update on Bevacizumab, Review of Ophthalmology, Vol. No: 12:12Issue: 12/1/2005.
23. Ferrara, FCEV: Basic Science and Clinical Progress, Endocrine Reviews, August 2004, 25(4):581–611.
24. Peter van Wijngaarden, MBBS, Douglas J. Coster, MBBS, FRCS, FRANZCO, Keryn A. Williams, PhD, Inhibitors of Ocular Neovascularization, Promises and Potential Problems, JAMA, March 23/30, 2005—Vol 293, No. 12 (Reprinted) ©2005 American Medical Association.
25. Richard f. Spaide, md, yale l. Fisher, md, Intravítreal bevacizumab (avastin) treatment of Proliferative diabetic Retinopathy complicated by Vítreous hemorrhage, Retina, 2006, Volume 26,Number 3.
26. Saurabh Luthra, Md,* Raja Narayanan, Md,* L. Eduardo A. Marques, Md,* Marilyn Chwa, Ms,* Dae W. Kim, Bs,* Joyce Dong,* Gail M. Seigel, Phd,† Aneesh Neekhra, Md,* Ana L. Gramajo, Md,* Donald J. Brown, Phd,* M. Cristina Kenney, Md, Phd,* Baruch D. Kuppermann, Md, Phd*. Evaluation Of In Vitro Effects Of Bevacizumab (Avastin) On Retinal Pigment Epithelial, Neurosensory Retinal, And Microvascular Endothelial Cells. Retina 26:512–518, 2006
27. Noma H, Funatsu H, Yamasaki M, et al. Pathogenesis of mácular edema with branch retinal vein occlusion and intraocular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6. Ameri J Ophthalmol. 2005; 140:256-261
28. Funatsu H, Yamashita H, Noma H, et al. Increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 in the aqueous humor of diabetics with mácular edema. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;133: 70-77.
29. Brooks HL Jr, Caballero S Jr, Newell CK, et al. Vítreous levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and stromal-derived factor 1 in patients with diabetic retinopathy and cystoid mácular edema before and after intraocular injection of triamcinolone. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122:1801-1807
30. Raja Narayanan, Md • Baruch D. Kuppermann, Md, Phd. Anti-FCEV Agents For Mácular Edema Secondary To Retinal Vascular Disorders. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins VisionCare Group.2006 march.
31. Winfried Gobel, Reiner Franke. Retinal Thickness in Diabetic Retinopathy, Comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography, the Retinal Thickness Analyzer, and Fundus Photography. Retina 26:49-57,2006
32. Carl Zeiss Meditec AG. Stratus TCO software version 4, Real Answers in Real Time. Publication No.000000-1355-985. 2007
33. Panozzo G, Parolini B, Gusson E, Mercanti A, Pinackatt S, Bertoldo G, Pignatto S: Diabetic mácular edema: an TCO-based classification. Semin Ophthalmol 2004;19:13–20.
34. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulindependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993;329:977– 86.
35. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. BMJ 1998;317:703–13.
36. J. Fernando Arevalo, MD, FACS,1 Jans Fromow-Guerra, MD,2 Hugo Quiroz-Mercado, MD,2 Juan G. Sanchez, MD,1 Lihteh Wu, MD,3 Mauricio Maia, MD,4 Maria H. Berrocal, MD,5 Adriana Solis-Vivanco, MD,2 Michel E. Farah, MD,4 for the Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group* . Primary Intravítreal Bevacizumab (Avastin) for Diabetic Mácular EdemaResults from the Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group at 6-Month Follow-up. Ophthalmology 2007;114:743–750 © 2007 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology
37. Lee CM, Olk RJ. Modified grid láser photocoagulation for diffuse diabetic mácular edema: long-term visual results. Ophthalmology 1991;98:1594–602.
38. Bandello F, Polito A, Del Borrello M, Zemella N, Isola M: ‘Light’ versus ‘classic’ láser treatment for clinically significant diabetic mácular edema. Br J Ophthalmol 2005;89:864–870.
39. Luttrull JK, Musch DC, Mainster MA: Subthreshold diode micropulse photocoagulation for the treatment of clinically significant diabetic mácular oedema. Br J Ophthalmol 2005;89:74–80.
40. Nauck M, Karakiulakis G, Perruchoud AP, Papakonstantinou E, Roth M. Corticosteroids inhibit the expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Eur J Pharmacol 1998;341:309−15.
41. Jonas JB, Kamppeter BA, Harder B, Vossmerbaeumer U, Sauder G, Spandau UH. Intravítreal triamcinolone acetonide for diabetic mácular edema: a prospective, randomized study. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2006;22:200−7.
42. Massin P, Audren F, Haouchine B, Erginay A, Bergmann JF, Benosman R, et al. Intravítreal triamcinolone acetonide for diabetic diffuse mácular edema: preliminary results of a prospective controlled trial. Ophthalmology 2004;111:218−24.
43. Richard F. Spaide, Md, Ketan Laud, Md, Howard F. Fine, Md, Mhsc, James M. Klancnik Jr, Md, Atherine B. Meyerle, Md, Lawrence A. Yannuzzi, Md, John Sorenson, Md, Jason Slakter, Md, Yale L. Fisher, Md, Michael J. Cooney, MdI, ntravítreal, Bevacizumab Treatment Of Choroidal Neovascularization Secondary To Age-Related Mácular Degeneration, Retina 26:383–390, 2006.
44. Eugene W. M. Ng, David T. Shima, Perry Calias, Emmett T. Cunningham, Jr., David R. Guyer And Anthony P. Adamis. Pegaptanib, A Targeted Anti-FCEV Aptamer For ocular Vascular Disease. Nature Reviews-Drug Discovery, Volume 5 ,February 2006, 123-132.
45. Cunningham ET Jr, Adamis AP, Altaweel M, Aiello LP, Bressler NM, D'Amico DJ, Goldbaum M, Guyer DR, Katz B, Patel M, Schwartz SD; Macugen Diabetic Retinopathy Study Group, A Phase II Randomized Double-Masked Trial of Pegaptanib, an Anti–Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Aptamer, for Diabetic Mácular Edema, Ophthalmology .Volume 112, Issue 10 , TCOober 2005, Pages 1747-1757.
46. Rosenfeld PJ, Moshfeghi AA, Puliafito CA, Optical coherence tomography findings after an intravítreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin) for neovascular age related mácular degeneration. Ophthalmic Surg Lásers Imaging 2005; 36:270–271.
47. Jonathan Shahar, Bsc,*† Robert L. Avery, Md,‡§ Gad Heilweil, Md,*† Adiel Barak, Md,*† Esther Zemel, Phd, Geoffrey P. Lewis, Phd,‡ Patrick T. Johnson, Phd,‡ Steven K. Fisher, Phd,‡ Ido Perlman, Phd, Anat Loewenstein, Md*.Electrophysiologic And Retinal Penetration Studies Following Intravítreal Injection Of Bevacizumab (Avastin). Retina 26:262–269, 2006
48. Roberta P. A. Manzano, Md, Gholam A. Peyman, Md, Palwasha Khan, Md, Muhamet Kivilcim, Md. Testing Intravítreal Toxicity Of Bevacizumab (Avastin). Retina 26:257–261, 2006.
49. Michels S, Rosenfeld PJ, Puliafito CA, et al. Systemic bevacizumab (Avastin) therapy for neovascular age-related mácular degeneration: twelve-week results of an uncontrolled open-label study. Ophthalmology 2005;112:1035–1074.
50. Robert L. Avery, MD1, Joel Pearlman, MD, PhD2, Dante J. Pieramici, MD1, Melvin D. Rabena, BS1, Alessandro A. Castellarin, MD1, Ma’an A. Nasir, MD1, Matthew J. Giust, CRA1, Robert Wendel, MD2, Arun Patel, MD2. Intravítreal Bevacizumab (Avastin) in the Treatment of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy. Ophthalmology, Volume 113, Issue 10, Pages 1695.e1-1695.e15,2006
51. Christos Hritoglou MD, Daniel Kook MD, Aljoscha Neubauer MD, Armin Wolf MD, Siegfried Priglinger MD, Rupert Strauss MD, Arnd Gandorfer MD, Michael Ulbig MD, Anselm Kampik MD. Intravitreal bevacizumab (avastin) therapy for persistent diffuse diabetic mácular edema. Retina 26:999 –1005, 2006 Sep.
52. Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, Scott IU, Edwards AR, Beck RW, Bressler NM, Chan CK, Elman MJ, Friedman SM, Greven CM, Maturi RK, Pieramici DJ, Shami M, Singerman LJ, Stockdale CR. A phase II randomized clinical trial of intravítreal bevacizumab for diabetic mácular edema. Ophthalmology. 114(10):1860-7, 2007 TCO.
53. Kumar A, Sinha S. Intravítreal bevacizumab (Avastin) treatment of diffuse diabetic mácular edema in an Indian population. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 55(6):451-5, 2007 Nov-Dec.
54. Michels S, Rosenfeld PJ, Puliafito CA, et al. Systemic bevacizumab (Avastin) therapy for neovascular age-related mácular degeneration 12-week results of an uncontrolled open-la¬bel clinical study. Ophthalmology 2005;112(6):1035-47.
55. Wong, Lisa J. MD, Ms. Desai, Rajen U. MD, Jain, Atul MD; Feliciano, David Ba; Moshfeghi, Darius M. MD; Sanislo, Steven R. MD ; Blumenkranz, Mark S. MD Surveillance for potential adverse events associated with the use of intravitreal bevacizumab for retinal and choroidal vascular disease. Retina. 28(8):1151-1158, September 2008
56. Wu L. Martinez-Castellanos MA. Quiroz-Mercado H. Arevalo JF. Berrocal MH. Farah ME. Maia M. Roca JA. Rodriguez FJ. for the Pan American Collaborative Retina Group (PACORES). Twelve-month safety of intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (Avastin(R)): results of the Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group (PACORES). Graefes Archive for Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology. 246(1):81-7, 2008 Jan.
57. Jonas , Jost MD, Heatley, Gregg MD. Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide and Secondary Ocular Hypertension. Journal of Glaucoma (2005) 14(2), 168-171.
58. Yi-Sheng Ch, Sung- Huei T y cols. Ctotoxicity of triamcinolone Acetonide on Human Retinal Pigment Ephitelial Cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2007 ; (6) : 2792-98
59. Macky Ta, Shazly. Retinal toxicity of triamcinolone’s Vehicle (benzyl alcohol): an electrophysiologic and electron microscopy study. Grefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2007; (6): 817-24
60. Konstantopoulos CW, Newsom R. Ocular morbidity associated with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide. Eye 2007; 21: 317-20)
61. Kim, Hyuncheol PhD; Csaky, Karl G. MD, PhD. Safety and Pharmacokinetics of a preservative-free triamcinolone acetonide formulation for intravitreal administration. Retina 2006 ; (26) : 523-530
62. Kothari A. Intravitreal Triamcinolone : Preservatives, Purification and Preservative Free ¨ Drug- The Final Word on the preparation to use. http:/
63. Salvolini E, Neri P, Orciani M. Intravitreal micronized triamcinolone versus triamcinolone acetonide : a clinical and morphological comparative study. Int Immunopathol Pharmacol 2008; (1): 181- 8.
64. Dr. Juan C Altamirano-Vallejo, Dra. Laura E. Mora. Comparación de la presión intraocular en ojos con edema macular tratados con acetónido de triamcinolona intravítrea con y sin conservadores. Rev Mex Oftalmol; Nov- Dic 2008; 82 (6) : 397-402.
65. Dr. med. Jesús Hernán González Cortés y cols. Ausencia de hipertensión ocular posterior a la aplicación intravítrea de acetónido de triamcinolona libre de conservadores. Presentado en el XXIX Congreso Mexicano de Oftalmología Monterrey 2009, del 7 al 11 de Agosto.
66. González Cortés JH y cols. Tratamiento del edema macular diabético clínicamente significativo con láser Nd: Yag subumbral de doble frecuencia. Revista Universitaria. 2008; Volumen 10, Número 41: 190-199

No hay comentarios:

Publicar un comentario en la entrada